Glasgow & SW Scotland Butterflies

Glasgow & SW Scotland Branch Website

June 9, 2010

Some photos of Lepidoptera in 2010

Filed under: Butterflies, Moths — Andrew Masterman @ 3:06 pm

The Pebble Hook-tip is one of six species of moth belonging to the family Drepanidae which occur in the UK. Hook-tip refers to the tips of the forewings which are strongly hooked.

The photo below was taken at Glasdrum on 29 May 2010 during the Chequered Skipper weekend and is of the scotica sub species.

 Pebble Hook -tip

If you are unsure of the difference between the underwings of a Pearl-bordered Fritillary and Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, compare the next two photos.

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

The following is the upper-side of the same Pearl-bordered Fritillary.

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Now for something completely different!

 The Tussock moths of the family Lymantriidae are so-named because of the characteristic tufts of hair on the backs of the caterpillars. The caterpillar of the Dark Tussock is a good example as it has white tufts either side of a black stripe in the middle of the body with yellow tufts at either end!

Dark Tussock caterpillar at Schiehallion 26 May 2010

This second photo of another Dark Tussock caterpillar is quite kitten-ish!

Another Dark Tussock caterpillar near Trinafour, Perthshire 17 may 2010

Talking of hairy caterpillars, the “Woolly Bear” caterpillar of the Garden Tiger must now be mentioned. This amazing caterpillar is presumably a good example of how evolution by natural selection can produce extreme morphology!

“Woolly Bear” caterpillar of the Garden Tiger at Schiehallion 26 May 2010

The Broad-bordered White Underwing is a Red data Book  species found only above about 2000 ft in Scotland although one was recorded on the summit of Cheviot in Northumberland on 12 June 1974. Most Scottish records are from the central Highlands. Twenty five were found near the summit of Meall Breac (802 m) on the south-east side of Loch rannoch on 31 May 2010 and a further three on neighbouring Geal Charn.

Broad-bordered White Underwing on Geal Charn 26 May 2010

An even rarer mountain moth is the Small Dark Yellow Underwing which is classified as Nationally Scarce A.  This mountain moth flies very fast and occurs in low numbers and is very difficult to detect. One was found on the top of Meall Breac, Loch Rannoch after 4 hours searching and another found on Schiehallion after 5 hours searching. A very attractive moth but a real blighter to find!

Small Dark Yellow Underwing Meall Breac 31 May 2010

Another moth of the mountains is the Emperor which is the only UK member of the moth family Saturniidae. The large green caterpillars with pink spots which you can find on heather in August are spectacular but so too are the adults! The photo below is of the larger female - an Emperess? - which is quite mesmerizing.

Female Emperor moth at Schiehallion 19 May 2010

Another moth characteristic of heather moorland is the Common Heath and the males have spectacular feathered antennae. 

Male Common Heath at Schiehallion 30 May 2010

Returning to butterflies, the Green Hairstreak is a butterfly which can be found on heather moorland as its caterpillars feed on Blaeberry.

Green Hairstreak at Trinafour, Perthshire 17 may 2010

Written by Andrew Masterman

April 17, 2010

Scottish Cinnabar Moth Survey

Filed under: Conservation and Habitat Management, Moths — Tags: , , , , — Scott Shanks @ 5:29 pm

This survey, which began last year, is continuing through 2010.

Cinnabar moth

Cinnabar moth

Like many of the commoner moths, the Cinnabar has undergone a long-term decline in recent decades (83% over 35 years, based on Rothamsted trap data) and at the UK level is now regarded as a vulnerable species (see ‘The State of Britain’s Larger Moths’ report). It remains widespread across England & Wales, but is much scarcer in Scotland, where it is most often seen in coastal areas. Butterfly Conservation, with support from the Moths Count team, wants to learn more about where it occurs and this is most easily done by spotting the colourful orange and black caterpillars which feed on ragwort leaves, often in such large numbers that they strip the plants completely.

Cinnabar caterpillars feeding on Ragwort

Cinnabar caterpillars feeding on Ragwort

The caterpillars can be seen in July and August; the equally striking adult moth has a long flight season, starting in late May and, because it is easily disturbed during the day and will fly when it’s sunny, may also be recorded during the same period.
Postcards showing both the larva and adult were widely distributed in 2009 and further publicity is planned for this year. People are being asked to send in any sightings using either the postcards or directly by e-mail to Barry Prater , the Moth Recorder for Berwickshire.

There was a pleasing response from BC members and others and the map shows all the 2009 records received; if you know of more from last year do please send them in.

Cinnabar moth distribution map
Cinnabar moth distribution map

One of the objectives of the survey is to highlight the issue of moth conservation in the context of the overall pressure on biodiversity. The reliance of Cinnabar larvae on the widespread but controversial plant ragwort, known to be toxic to horses, may raise conflicts of interest, but a very helpful leaflet ‘Ragwort Friend or Foe’, prepared jointly by Butterfly Conservation, Plantlife and the British Horse Society is available from the BC Scotland page of the main BC website. The leaflet outlines the benefits and problems of ragwort and gives advice on its management.
Anyone who lives here or others who visit the area during the summer can help by taking part in the survey.

March 21, 2010

How late will butterflies and moths be this spring?

Filed under: Butterflies, Moths — Andrew Masterman @ 1:47 pm

After the cold winter of 2009/10, it is likely that we will have to wait rather longer to see butterflies and moths on the wing this year than in recent years when spring phenology has been advanced.

Here are some stats on the winter. The Met Office areal series for Scotland which goes back to 1914 has 2009/10 as the second coldest winter on record being only  0.1 C warmer than 1962/63 with a mean winter temperature of 0.3 C.

There are some temperature data for sites in Scotland which go back much further than 1914 and the longest series is for Edinburgh going back to 1764 which was compiled by Robert Mossman.  He created a record for Edinburgh for the peroid 1764-1896 by assembling several datasets recorded in the Edinburgh area. This Edinburgh temperature record can be continued up to date using the Edinburgh Observatory record up to 1960, the Edinburgh Airport data from 1961 to 1999 and data from Leuchars, Fife from 2000.

Here is a graph showing this temperature record back to winter 1764/1765.

Mean winter temperature at Edinburgh 1765-2010

Mean winter temperature at Edinburgh 1765-2010

And here are the rankings:

Winter Mean Temp Ranking
1780 0.1 1
1879 0.2 2
1814 0.5 3
1963 0.7 4
1838 1.0 5=
1860 1.0 5=
1823 1.0 5=
1795 1.1 6
1881 1.2 7
1774 1.4 8=
1947 1.4 8=
1820 1.4 8=
1895 1.5 9=
1784 1.5 9=
1766 1.6 10=
2010 1.6 10=
1816 1.7 11=
1785 1.7 11=
1845 1.7 11=
1776 1.7 11=
1979 1.7 11=
1808 1.8 12=

Using data for Leuchars which is outside Edinburgh, the mean winter temp  for 2009/10 was 1.6 C giving a ranking of 10th equal with 14 colder winters since records began in 1765.

I did find data for Edinburgh Gogorbank online back to 2003 but as the Airport closed in 1999, use of this site which is better in terms of siting than Leuchars in the graph above would leave a gap.

But I compare Leuchars and Edinburgh data for winter 2009/10 below:

                         Dec         Jan              Feb

Leuchars           1.2          1.9               1.8
Gogarbank         1.8          1.8              1.9

So Leuchars was 0.6 C colder in December 2009 than Edinburgh Gogarbank meaning winter 2009/10 was 0.2 C warmer at Gogarbank than Leuchars with a mean of 1.8 C.  This changes ranking from 10th equal coldest to 12th equal coldest since 1765.

So winter 2009/10 in Scotland was around 10th to 12th coldest in the last 245 years, so exceptionally cold. The low temperatures of this  winter will certainly have an impact on spring phenology but this effect could be counteracted if spring temperatures are above average. On the date this post was written (21 March 2010), March temperatures are running circa 1 C below average, so late spring phenology is still expected. The winters of both 1979 and 1982 were similarly cold so spring phenology comparable to those two years can be expected.

Some effects are already in evident in Glasgow with daffoldils still not out (they won’t be long!) and crocuses in full bloom. Frogs spawn which normally appears in the first week of March has only appeared a week ago.

So how might butterflies be affected?  As of 21 March, the sightings page for 2010  shows first records for three species: Red Admiral 9 February; Peacock 7 March; and Small Tortoiseshell 12 March. These three species overwinter as adults so can be active as soon as a warm spring day appears. However, the Red Admiral is a migrant species which is considered unable to overwinter in the UK as the winters are too cold for it.  So this is a surprising record given the severity of the winter but it is thought that some individuals have successfully overwintered in southern England in recent milder winters.

The extent to which the spring phenology of our butterflies and moths will be affected this year depends on how they overwinter. The different overwintering strategies are detailed in this blog article. As shown in the paragraph above, species which overwinter as adults are least affected provided that they can withstand low temperatures. Those that overwinter in the pupa/chrysalis stage are also able to respond quite quickly to spring warmth but are likely to be delayed somewhat this year. The Orange Tip and the other Whites overwinter as pupae and are on the wing early in the spring but might be delayed a week or two this year.

For those species which overwinter in the egg or larval stage, the cold winter is likely to have a larger effect as the caterpillars must feed on plant leaves to continue their development. And the much lower soil temperatures which will be present this spring will certainly delay spring growth and bud-burst by several weeks. So the caterpillars which have survived the winter will have to remain hungry until the leaves on which they feed appear and for those which overwinter as an egg, egg hatch will be timed to co-incide with bud-burst, and this will simply be delayed. But the effect of this will be that butterflies and moths which overwinter as larvae or eggs will have their development delayed so their appearance as adults later in the year will be delayed.

So some of the  Fitillaries, Browns, Skippers and Blues could be delayed by up to several weeks this year. So we will all have to be more patient than usual! But it will be interesting to see how long each species is delayed and whether or not there are other effects. We might well see a dramatic drop in Peacock numbers in highland Scotland where temperatures have been very low as adults are not considered frost-tolerant but other species may increase in number if winter predation has been reduced by the cold winter.  By doing butterfly and moth recording this year, valuable data will be obtained which will greatly increase our undertanding on what effect cold winters have on a particular species. So please get and out and about recording!

Written by Andrew Masterman

March 14, 2010

Forester Moth Surveys in Argyll in 2010

Filed under: Moths — Andrew Masterman @ 11:28 am

Forester (Adscita statices) is one of the Burnet moths but does not have any crimson  spots on an inky blue/black background which are charcteristic of this group of spectacular moths. The Forester has green and very shiny wings making it unmistakeable and a very attractive moth to find.

Forester moth    Credit: Andrew Masterman

Forester moth Credit: Andrew Masterman

The habitat of the Forester in Scotland is considered to be damp meadows and coastal marshes with a medium to tall sward which contain the larval foodplants, Common Sorrel and Sheep Sorrel, and its preferred nectaring plants which are Ragged Robin, Marsh Thistle and Devil’s Bit Scabious.  Light grazing to control scrub is considered essential but overgrazing is detrimental. Some shelter provided by trees or bracken may also be required but more data on sites in which it occurs would increase our knowledge of its ecology and help to conserve it.

The Forester is on the wing from early June in warm years through July with a few individuals flying in early August. It is a day flying moth being active in sunshine but may be found resting on vegetation in cloudy weather.

The Forester has a well-distributed but local distribution in England but is in decline as the open semi-natural habitats which it inhabits are being lost to agricultural intensification.

In Scotland, the Forester is confined to coastal parts of Argyll and the nearby islands of Jura, Lismore and Mull. But there are some old records from the Borders so it is likely that it used to be more widespread in Scotland but has been lost due to agricultural intensification.

There are 20 Forester records on the west coast of Argyll. It is very likely that the Forester is under-recorded so searching for it in coastal areas between the 20 known sites may well lead to the discovery of new sites.  There are records for the isle of Seil, so it is possible that both Kerrera and Luing also have the Forester. Other promising areas to search for the Forester would be the Ardfern peninsular and the Loch Melfort area.

You can download a Word document containing the three maps below and the grid references by clicking here.

Forester sites on the west coast of Argyll

Forester sites on the west coast of Argyll


The map below (click for larger image) shows a close up view of the more northerly sites in the above map.

Forester sites near Oban

Forester sites near Oban


The map below (click for larger image) shows a close up view of the more southerly sites near Kilmartin.

Forester sites near Kilmartin

Forester sites near Kilmartin






Argyll>Loch Craignish>Eilean Righ




Argyll>Oban>Loch Nell




Argyll>Oban>Upper Soroba



Pelham-Clinton, E.C.

Argyll>Loch Feochan>Minard>Ardentallan



Langmaid, Dr J.




Young, Dr M.




Christie, I.




Barbour, Dr D.

Argyll>Oban>Upper Soroba



Pelham-Clinton, E.C.




Raymond, J.

Argyll>Seil>Loch Seil



Wormell, Mr P.




Barbour, Dr D.




David Barbour

Argyll>Seil>Loch Seil



John Knowler




Jamie Mellor




Bob Black

Argyll>Loch Feochan>Moleigh>Kilmore



Pete Hardy

Argyll>Seil>Loch Seil



Bill Jackson




Andrew Masterman




Stephen Mason




Carl Farmer

Written by Andrew Masterman

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